The DOTCOM Waste library is a collection of information on good practices and lessons learned in supporting the detection, investigation and prosecution of the illicit management and illegal trade of waste. If you have something that would be of interest to our beneficiaries, please share your content here!

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Title
Violation type (criminal or civil)
Crime Routes
Type of material
Phase
Year
Author
Source
Waste type
Lessons learnt / good practices
Summary
LIFE SMART Waste projectwaste-related crimesN/AProjects/InitiativesInspection
Detection
Investigation
2014-2019http://www.sepa.org.uk/regulations/waste/life-smart-waste/AllIntelligence-sharing facility
Information sharing
Intelligence-led regulation
Training packages
The overarching goal of the LIFE SMART Waste project is to demonstrate innovative ways of understanding, tackling and reducing waste-related crime. The project will develop, test and apply new and modern ways of working, and demonstrate direct interventions to assess and target illegality in waste streams.
Environmental Network for Optimizing Regulatory Compliance on Illegal Traffic (ENFORCE)N/AN/AProjects/InitiativesEstablished in 2013Conference of the Parties to the Basel Conventionhttp://www.enforce-infoexchange.org
http://www.basel.int/Implementation/TechnicalAssistance/Partnerships/ENFORCE/Overview/tabid/4526/Default.aspx
AllThe mission of the ENFORCE is through a network of relevant experts, to promote parties’ compliance with the provisions of the Basel Convention pertaining to preventing and combating illegal traffic in hazardous wastes and other wastes through the better implementation and enforcement of national law. The Network aims to bring together existing resources and enhancing and improving cooperation and coordination between relevant entities with a specific mandate to deliver capacity-building activities and tools on preventing and combating illegal traffic.
Guidelines for customs controls on transboundary shipments of waste. Public summaryIllegal transboundary shipment of wasteEU - Non EU countriesScientific documentInspection
Detection
5/12/2015EChttp://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/NOT/?uri=uriserv:OJ.C_.2015.157.01.0001.01.ENGAllTool for detection;
Knowledge on applicable legislation targeted to customs related to transboundary movement of waste;
Inter-agency cooperation;
International cooperation;
The main objective of the Guidelines is to support compliance with the relevant provisions of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006. The Guidelines are intended as an instrument to support Customs in carrying out controls on waste shipments. They are also intended to assist Customs and national competent authorities (NCAs) in improving cooperation methods and developing good administrative practice.
Detection and Prevention of Illegal Transboundary Movement of Waste and Other Environment-Sensitive Commodities: Manual for TrainersIllegal transboundary movement of waste
False declaration
Fraud / Misclassification
EU - Non EU countries (mainly Germany and Hungary to Ukraine)Scientific documentInspection
Detection
7/1/2011OSCEhttp://www.osce.org/ukraine/104025Various examples of hazardous wastes (expired baby food, chemicals, industrial toxic waste, expired batteries, ...)This manual provides guidelines for trainers in customs and border agencies and environmental inspectorates on how to teach about the detection and prevention of illegal transboundary movement of waste, ozone-depleting substances, and rare and endangered animal and plant species. The manual also contains general recommendations on teaching and practical exercises. Each copy is accompanied by a set of photos for exercises on waste identification and a CD with a volume of information on the aforementioned topics.
Enforcement handbook on controlling illegal shipments of chemicals and waste-for Asia enforcement officersIllegal transboundary movement of waste:
no notification
no consent
falsification / misrepresentation / fraud
non conformity
N/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2015UNEP
REN
http://www.unep.org/publications/AllTake-back procedureIt is a pocket enforcement tool designed for enforcement officers of the participating countries of the Regional Enforcement Network for Chemicals and Waste (REN). It provides general information on the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions and their trade provisions, selected national regulations on waste import and export in Asian countries, the identification and classification of wastes and chemicals and related Harmonized System codes. It aims at providing easy reference and practical guidance for enforcement officers during their daily inspection and operation related to chemicals and waste.
Toolkit on E-waste Inspection and EnforcementIllegal transboundary movement of WEEEAll with focus on EU-AfricaScientific document
Online tool
Inspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2012IMPELhttp://www.basel.int/Implementation/Ewaste/EwasteinAfrica/Overview/ToolkitonEwasteInspectionandEnforcement/tabid/3160/Default.aspxWEEEThe E-waste toolkit was developed as part of the Africa E-waste Project. It contains valuable information on the international and regional legal regimes for transboundary movements of e-waste, existing training and capacity building materials, examples of criteria in use to distinguish second hand goods from e-waste, power point presentations and exercises.
The toolkit can be used as a capacity building tool to train staff from authorities involved in the matter of e-waste, transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and/or inspection and intervention techniques. The toolkit may also serve as a source of training materials for managers, policymakers and other relevant stakeholders.
E-waste Inspection and Enforcement manual - Developed in the framework of the SBC E-waste Africa project.N/AEU & US ↔ West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria & Benin) EU & US ↔ North Africa (Egypt & Tunisia)Online toolInspection
Detection Investigation
2012Secretariate of Basel Convention and IMPELhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-EWASTE-MAMUAL-INSPEnforcement.English.pdfE-wasteInformation sharing Tool for detection and investigation Training.The manual offers practical guidance and background information to regulatory and enforcement officers who deal with the transboundary movements of used electrical and electronic equipment (UEEE) and electrical and electronic waste (e-waste). The manual focuses primarily on countries of import.
Waste export controls toolN/AN/AOnline toolInspection
Detection
2015UK EAhttp://apps.environment-agency.gov.uk/waste-import-export/124357.aspxAllIntelligence: Can help authorities knowing if a waste can be exported or notOnline tool making it easier and faster to establish the types of waste that can be shipped abroad, the rules that apply and how to ensure compliance. It supports the identifation of the appropriate classification code for waste which is intended for export and the regulatory controls which apply to exports of those wastes to certain countries.
Export and Import Control ToolN/AN/AOnline toolInspection
Detection
2015SBChttp://www.basel.int/Implementation/Controllingtransboundarymovements/ExportandImportControlTool/tabid/4284/Default.aspx http://ers.basel.int/BC_ControlSystem/BC-ControlTool.htmAllCan help authorities knowing if a waste can be exported or notThe tool focuses on the Basel Convention provisions pertaining to the control of transboundary movements of hazardous and other wastes. Its aim is to assist Parties, States and stakeholders (generators, exporters, importers, disposers) in identifying whether the Basel Convention applies and what legal requirements should be borne in mind before initiating a transboundary movement. The tool gives access to information specific to the State of export, any State of transit and the State of import concerned by a proposed transboundary movement.
E-learning module for law enforcement officersIllegal transboundary movement of WEEEN/AOnline toolInspection
Detection
Investigation
2015Interpol
SBC
http://synergies.pops.int/Default.aspx?tabid=3534AllE-learning module for law enforcement officers on hazardous chemicals and wastes under the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm Conventions. Divided in 7 chapters:
About the 3 Conventions
Import and export procedures
Control
Identification, classification and safety issues
Dealing with suspicious or illegal trade/traffic
Cooperation
Final assessment
Manual for Customs officers on hazardous chemicals and wastes under the Basel, Rotterdam and Stockholm conventionsIllegal transboundary movement of WEEEN/AOnline tool
Scientific document
Inspection
Detection
2014SBC & alhttp://www.basel.int/Implementation/Publications/TrainingManuals/tabid/2363/Default.aspxAllTool for detection
Safety consideration
Custom risk management
National cooperation
Inter-agency cooperation
International cooperation
This manual inform customs about the objectives, procedures, rights and obligations contained in the 3 conventions. It describes in general what Customs should know to facilitate the legal trade in hazardous chemicals and wastes. It will also support you in how to identify and deal with possible cases of illegal trade/traffic.Divided into 6 modules:
Conventions
Import and export procedures
Customs control
Identification, classification and safety issues
Dealing with suspicious or illegal trade/traffic
Cooperation
Guidance Elements for Detection, Prevention and Control of Illegal Traffic in Hazardous
Wastes
Illegal transboundary movement of WEEEN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2002UNEPhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-EWASTE-GUID-IllegalTraffic.English.pdfAllThese guidelines focus on enforcement at the domestic level. By reference to the Convention documents and other resources they also provide guidance for Parties who have yet to develop implementing legislation.
(Exhaustive list of guidance element but not fully development)
Instruction manual on the prosecution of illegal traffic of hazardous wastes or other wastesIllegal transboundary movement of WEEEN/AScientific documentProsecution
Sentencing
2012UNEP SBChttp://www.basel.int/TheConvention/Publications/GuidanceManuals/tabid/2364/AllSpecialised agency/prosecutor
National cooperation
Inter-agency cooperation
International cooperation
The manual provides guidance for those involved in the prosecution of cases of illegal traffic in hazardous or other wastes within the scope of the Basel Convention, in particular judge and prosecutor. The manual draw upon best practices and provides examples taken from the experience of parties to the Basel Convention in prosecuting illegal traffic cases, including information on how such actions are managed.
Sentencing Council Environmental Offences Definitive GuidelineUnauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal etc of waste; and illegal discharges to air, land and waterN/AScientific documentProsecution2015Sentencing Council UKhttps://www.sentencingcouncil.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/Final_Environmental_Offences_Definitive_Guideline_web1.pdfAllCan be useful information for prosecutionThe Sentencing Council published Sentencing guidelines in February which covered offences relating to the disposal and treatment of waste covered by the Environmental Protection Act 1990 and the Environmental Permitting (England and Wales) Regulations 2010. Separate guidance has been issued to courts for determining punishments for businesses and for individuals following a public consultation in 2013, which saw input from the waste industry, local authorities, judges and magistrates.
Guidance Manual For The Implementation Of Council Decision C(2001)107/Final, As Amended, On The Control Of Transboundary Movements Of Wastes Destined For Recovery OperationsN/AIntra OECDScientific documentInspection
Detection
2009OECDhttp://www.oecd.org/env/waste/42262259.pdfAll wastes destined for recovery operationsThis Manual is to be considered only as a supportive explanatory document to the OECD
Council Decision C(2001)107/FINAL on the control of transboundary movements of waste destined for recovery operations in the OECD countries
WASTE SITES manualN/AIntra EU upstream treatment facilitiesScientific documentInspection
Detection
2012IMPELhttp://impel.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Waste-Sites-Manual-English-version.pdfAlluseful for inspection (enforcement) authoritiesManual for the identification and control of “upstream” storage and treatment facilities used for problematic waste exports
Doing the right things for waste shipment inspections' (DTRT-TFS). Step-by-step guidance book for waste shipment inspectionsN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2012IMPELhttp://www.impel.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/FR-2012-14-DTRT-TFS-Step-by-Step-Guidance-Book.pdfAlluseful for inspection (enforcement) authoritiesManual for waste shipments inspections, using as starting point the Environmental Inspection Cycle
Doing the right things' setting inspection targets and performance monitoringN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2012IMPELhttp://impel.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Final-Report_Guidance-Book-Setting-targets-and-performance-monitoring_2013-01-08.pdfAlluseful for inspection (enforcement) authoritiesA practical tool to help environmental inspection authorities achieve and show results
Training manual on illegal traffic for customs and enforcement agenciesN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
2006UNEP SBChttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/legalmatters/illegtraffic/trman-e.pdfAlluseful for customs authoritiesThe manual is designed to assist Customs and other enforcement agencies in understanding the provisions of the Basel Convention, and highlights the fundamental rôle they play in its implementation.
A Practical guidance for Managing illegal shipments of wasteEWSR related violationScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
2008IMPELhttps://www.env.go.jp/en/recycle/asian_net/Annual_Workshops/2010_II_PDF/Additional_Paper/IMPEL-TFS-Manual-return-of-illegal-waste-shipments-Dec-2008.pdfAllThis manual provides practical guidelines for competent authorities that suspect that an
illegal waste shipment has taken place. In particular for the return of illegal shipment
Report E-waste Africa Project. Inspection and enforcement trainingN/AEU ↔ AfricaScientific documentInspection
Detection
2011IMPELhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-EWASTE-REP-TrainTheTrainer-201009.English.pdfWEEEuseful for customs authorities
legislation
Port procedure
Summary of an IMPEL train-the-trainer event on Ewaste inspection and enforcement, as part of the E-waste Africa project. on Ewaste inspection and enforcement.
6 modules: A: Knowledge and awareness, B: Legislation, C: Port procedures, D: Communication and Collaboration, E: Inspection Methods and F: Train–the-trainer path
Enforcement of European Waste Shipment RegulationEWSR related violationNetherlands to OECD and non-OECDScientific document
Statistics
Inspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2012Algemene Rekenkamerhttp://www.libraweee.eu/europe/AllIntelligence
Information sharing
Cooperation
Specialized unit
Law-related
This report presents the audit result in terms of: Implementation of the EWSR, Insight into the impact of enforcement, Settlement of offences, Response of the state secretaries and the minister and the Court of Audit's afterword.
Guidance on the interpretation
of key provisions of
Directive 2008/98/EC on waste
N/AN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2012European Commissionhttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/guidance.htmAllThis guidance document is intended to assist both national authorities and economic operators with the Directive 2008/98/EC. It intends to help national authorities and economic operators interpret this Directive.
Practical Manual on permitting and inspection of waste management operationsWaste management violationN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2011European Commissionhttp://www.libraweee.eu/europe/
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/inspections.htm
AllIntelligence (risk analysis, reporting)
Training
Cooperation
The guidance document is mainly addressed to the competent authorities involved in permitting and inspections. It covers both theoretical and practical aspects of permitting and inspections in the Member States. It accompanies the Guidance on the interpretation of key provisions of Directive 2008/98/EC.
E-book on "L' esportazione e l'importazione di rifiuti
Alla luce del regolamento n. 1013/2006/Ce e dei successivi regolamenti di attuazione"
Illegal transboundary shipment of wasteN/AScientific document2013Province of Florencehttp://freebook.edizioniambiente.it/libro/49/L_esportazione_e_limportazione_di_rifiutiAllThe volume has been prepared in collaboration with the Directorate of Environment and Waste Management of the Province of Florence and offers a comprehensive overview of procedures and instruments for the management of transboundary shipments of waste in the light of regulatory developments in the EU and national level.
Rapporto Rofioti Urbani
Municipal Waste Report
Illegal transboundary shipment of wasteN/AScientific document2015ISPRA - Institute for Protection and Environmental Researchhttp://www.isprambiente.gov.it/en/publications/reports/municipal-waste-report-edition-2015?set_language=enAllThe Edition 2015 of the Municipal Waste Report provides data (reference year 2014) concerning municipal waste generation, separate collection and management at national, regional and provincial level as well as data on import/export of municipal waste.
Pollution Crime Forensic Investigation Manual- volume 1Waste disposalN/ATraining ManualInvestigation Prosecution2014INTERPOLhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/Resources; http://www.interpol.int/content/download/25449/350495/version/4/file/INTERPOL%20Pollution%20Crime%20Forensic%20Investiation%20Manual%20-%20volume%201%20.pdfAllThe purpose of this manual is to disseminate the basic principles and techniques of environmental forensic inspections and investigations and provide countries with a technical resource to enhance their environmental crime enforcement programs.
Pollution Crime Forensic Investigation Manual- volume 2Waste disposalN/ATraining ManualInvestigation Prosecution2014INTERPOLhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/ResourcesAllThe purpose of this manual is to disseminate the basic principles and techniques of environmental forensic inspections and investigations and provide countries with a technical resource to enhance their environmental crime enforcement programs.
Advisory Group on the Food Chain, Animal and Plant Health– Working Group on Food Losses and Food WasteN/AN/AProjects/Initiatives2012European Commissionhttp://ec.europa.eu/food/safety/food_waste/eu_actions/stakeholders/index_en.htmFoodDialogue and cooperation between stakeholders. Awareness raising programmesThe group was established under the Advisory Group on the Food Chain, Animal & Plant Health with the key objectives of sharing of best practices in food waste prevention and in identifying potential EU actions. The purpose of this advisory group is to support the European Commission.
Illegal trafficking and unsustainable waste management in Italy: Evidence at regional levelViolation of Italian Environmental CodeMain points of departure: Genova, Venezia, Napoli, Gioia Tauro and Taranto. Italy to China, India, South Korea.Scientific documentDetection Prosecution2015Germani, Pergolizzi & Reganatihttp://www.siecon.org/online/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Germani.pdf.All. Mainly plastic , scrap metal, industrial studs and muds, metal waste, animal and vegetal waste,
, textiles, and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).
The study aims at investigating the determinants of the illegal trafficking of waste using waste, economic, and enforcement data in a panel analysis over the period 2002-2013 in Italian regions. The findings reveal that the major determinants influencing
the rate of illegal trafficking of waste differ between northern-central and southern regions. It also appears that current enforcement activities do not significantly deter criminal behaviors.
Waste Crime – Waste Risk Gaps in meeting the global waste challengeViolation of Basel ConventionAcross Europe From Europe to Asia, Africa, Latin America.Scientific document2015GRID-Arendal /UNEPhttp://www.unep.org/delc/Portals/119/publications/rra-wastecrime.pdfAllJoint enforcement and arrangements
for intelligence-sharing between the UK and the Netherlands are set out in a formal agreement. This might be extented to Ireland and Belgium.
This study is based on the latest research findings, and involvement from practitioners such as the formal waste sector, inspectors, law enforcement officers and prosecutors. It provides insight into the possible scale and features of the main drivers, along with case studies. It examines major areas of policy deficits and challenges that require further investigation, action and intervention as well as to identify opportunities.
ZEROWASTE PRON/AProjects/Initiatives2013-2104http://www.zerowastepro.eu/AllZEROWASTE PRO aims to capitalise on methods and tools that have been produced under other projects for zero waste management schemes at the municipal and regional level. It was funded by ERDF through the European Territorial Cooperation Programme MED 2007-2013 and National Resources. The project had 11 European organisations as partners. The project focuses on waste minimisation through prevention, reuse and recycling with the ultimate goal of waste management with minimal financial and environmental cost.
An overview of waste crime, its characteristics, and the vulnerability of the EU waste sectorViolation of EU Directive on the Landfill of Waste
(1999/31EC) Violation of WEEE Directive
EU to outside and within EU.Scientific document2014Baird, Curry & Cruzhttp://wmr.sagepub.com/content/32/2/97.full.pdf+htmlEnd-of-life vehicles WEEEThis paper highlights some factors which make the EU waste sector vulnerable to waste crime, such as new legislation and its weak regulatory enforcement, the economics of waste treatment, the complexity of the waste sector and so forth. The study also considers waste crime from the perspective of particular waste streams that are often associated with illegal shipment. It also explains some approaches which can be adopted by regulators and those involved in and law makers for identifying where opportunities for waste crime ooccurs and its prevention.
Preparing a Waste Management Plan - A methodological guidance noteScientific documentN/A2012ETAGIW Consortium (Expert team for assessment and guidance for the implementation of
Waste legislation)
http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/plans/pdf/2012_guidance_note.pdfAllUseful ckecklist for waste management planningThis Guidance Note serves to assist waste management planning and developing appropriate planning practices across the EU countries, in compliance with the requirements of EU legislation (mostly Directive2008/98/EC of 19 November & Directive 94/62/EC of 15 December 1994 onpackaging and packaging waste 2008 on waste). It is aimed mainly at national authorities and environmental agencies at the local and regional levlels that in charge of preparing waste management plans.
Waste Crime:Tackling Britain’s Dirty SecretScientific document with case studiesDetection Prosecution Sentencing2014ESAET (Environmental Services Association Education Trust)http://www.esauk.org/esa_reports/ESAET_Waste_Crime_Tackling_Britains_Dirty_Secret_LIVE.pdfAllThis report provides evidence on the nature, scale and impact of waste crime largely through case studies. It discusses the factors contributing to the rise in crime and analyses a business casee for action. Finally, it lays down set of recommendations for countering the problem of waste crime.
Guidance on the legal definition of waste and its applicationN/AScientific documentDetection2012DEFRA (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs)https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/69590/pb13813-waste-legal-def-guide.pdfAllProvides useful checklists for ensuring if the object/substance is waste before discarding and when waste ceases to be waste.The aim of this practical guide is to assist businesses and other organisations in everyday decisions on whether the substances or objects they are dealing with are likely or unlikely to be waste. It also provides detailed guidance on the case law on the definition of waste and is intended for those with a specialist interest in the issue.
Operation TENACIAwaste-related crimesN/AJudicial documentInvestigation2010Tribunal of Milanhttp://www.casadellalegalita.info/index.php/altre-regioni/calabria/operazione-inchiesta-tenaciaIllegal waste disposal, inclusing toxic waste, resulting
from demolition of buildings in illegal dumps
Modus operandi of organized crime in illicit waste disposal operations, also related to other crimesOperation TENACIA carried out by the Antimafia in Milan - Italy including, among several charges, the crime of illicit disposal of waste
National Environmental (Electrical/Electronic Sector) Regulations, 2011Import of e-waste; illegal import of used EEE; illegal disposal / recycling, etc.Other countries <-> NigeriaRegulatory documentPrevention2011Govt. of NigeriaElectrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Law-related (including e.g. law, regulation, standard...)This comprehensive regulation which is still awaiting being passed into a bill was drafted to check malpractices in importation and management of used and waste electrical/electronic products in Nigeria. It is the first of such amonsts most African countries, and is a good initiative given that Nigeria is one of the main targets of illegal exports of e-wastes. If adequately enforced, it offers a potential for controlling illicit traffic and management of e-waste. It prohibits the import of e-wastes.
E-waste Assessment - NigeriaImport of e-waste; illegal import of used EEE, improper disposal and recyclingOther countries <-> NigeriaScientific documentAssessment2010SBC and BCCC-Africahttp://www.basel.org.ng/Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Scientific assessment of magnitude of importaion of UEEE and WEEEEEE distribution amongst importers, distributors, assemblers, consumers,collectors,
repairers, dismantlers, recyclers, refurbishers of EEE in four main Nigerian cities was used to assess the magnitude of importation of used and waste EEE into Nigeria. EEE imports into Nigeria in 2009 added up to 2,942,000 tons, about 25.2%comprised of new products and 74.8% second hand EEE. A scenario of the situation by 2020 was projected. It gives an idea of the potential for generation of e-waste from imports into Nigeria.
Where are WEEE in Africa? Findings from the basel Convention E-Waste Africa ProgrammeImport of e-waste; illegal import of used EEE, improper disposal and recyclingEU ↔ West Africa (Ghana & Nigeria) North America ↔ West Africa (Ghana & Nigeria) Asia ↔ West Africa (Ghana & Nigeria)Scientific documentAssessment
Detection
Investigation
2011SBC, BCCC-Africa, UNEP, EMPA, Oiko Institute, EUhttp://www.basel.org.ng/Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Scientific assessment of magnitude of importaion of UEEE and WEEE
High volumes of domestically generated e-waste require well-functioning local take-back and recycling systems connecting informal collectors to a formal recycling structure is pivotal, along with appropriate capacity building and training.
Locally adapted recycling technologies for West Africa should make use of the abundant labor force instead of deploying expensive shredding and sorting machinery. A sustainable e-waste management system would also need an adequate financing scheme, a level playing field and appropriate market incentives.
Among other issues this study signficantly deals with trends in imports, use and managment of EEEe and e-wastefrom Europe into West Africa, especially Nigeria, Ghana, Ivory Coast, Liberia and Benin.
This is an executive summary of the National E-waste assessment underaken in five West African countires (Ghana, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia and Benin), documenting trends EEE importation from Europe, use and e-waste generation including flows of EEE and e-waste between Europe and West Africa. It also discusses the impacts of recycling practices on human health, environment, and climate change. Declaring the conditions in which transboundary movement of used EEE or e-waste is legal or illegal and supporting statistics.
Report on National Training Workshop on E-Waste in NigeriaTraining Workshop ReportCapacity building2011SBC, BCCC-Africa, UNEP, IMPEL, EUhttp://www.basel.org.ng/Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Capacity building for developing countries; stakeholder involvementThis is an executive summary of the National E-waste assessment underaken in five West African countires (Ghana, Nigeria, Cote d'Ivoire, Liberia and Benin), documenting trends EEE importation from Europe, use and e-waste generation including flows of EEE and e-waste between Europe and West Africa. It also discusses the impacts of recycling practices on human health, environment, and climate change. Declaring the conditions in which transboundary movement of used EEE or e-waste is legal or illegal and supporting statistics.
Draft ECOWAS E-Waste Regional StrategyOther countries, to the West African subregionScientific documentPolicy formulation2012ECOWAShttp://www.basel.org.ng/Electrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Policy development for combatting the e-waste problemDraft policy document on a variety of proposals for managing imports, recycling and disposal of EEEs and WEEEs in the West African subregion.
Guide for importers of UEEE into NigeriaRegulatory / Guidance documentGuideline; Prevention2013NESREA, Nigeriahttps://www.env.go.jp/recycle/yugai/reg/nigeria_20130419_2.pdfElectrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Guidelines for controlGuidance document for importers of UEEE into Nigeria. Spells out shipment and registration protocols. Bans e-waste imports..
Repatriation: NESREA steps up exercise, returns three offensive containersMissing or fraudulent notification, fraudulent import permitOther unspecified countries, to NigeriaScientific documentDetection, Investigation, Repatriation2013NESREA, Nigeriahttp://www.nesrea.gov.ng/news/ewaste.phpElectrical and electronic waste (WEEE)Special units, Information sharing, Intelligence, inspection, interception, repatriationSpecialised unit comprising of customs, regulatory bodies - NESREA and SON, ports authority and INTERPOL intercepted several imports of consignments of e-wastes into Nigeria in 2013. The consignments were sent back to ports of origin.
Essay on Development Policy International Collaboration as a Possible Way to Reduce Illegal E-waste Shipment: A Focus on Ghana, West-AfricaN/AN/AScientific documentDetection Investigation Prosecution2010-2012Simonne Rufener: NADEL MAS-Cycle 2010-12https://www.google.com.gh/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjOsvaSmuTLAhVGfRoKHf2ABxEQFggbMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nadel.ethz.ch%2Fcontent%2Fdam%2Fethz%2Fspecial-interest%2Fgess%2Fnadel-dam%2Fdocuments%2Fmas%2Fmas-essays%2FMAS_2010_Rufener_Simonne_Essay.pdf&usg=AFQjCNHcCpTpkxHP8G_NFJh_-EGFk6eHmw&sig2=YJVUeVNIvsRKCmxzfHqTPAE-wasteImportation of UEEE and EEE helps minimise the 'digital divide' developed and developing countries as well as job and income creation. EEE manufacturing companies being responsible for the safe disposal of WEEE.Information exchange or sharing between customs administrations. Collaborative efforts between regional and international organisations to carry out joint enforcement projects, capacity building and raising awareness.This document serves as a resource tool that details the efforts and projects developed by Environmental protection and sustainable development stakeholders around the world particularly in Ghana and Nigeria. It pin-points the good practices and short-comings of Customs officials and other designated national authorities in stoping waste related crimes. The study also lists the legal powers in Ghana and the phases (detection, investigation and prosecution) at which their competence is required.
Customs Procedures: The Customs Division of GRA - In ReformN/AN/AReportDetection Investigation2013Ghana Revenue Authority (GRA) - UNDPhttp://www.gra.gov.gh/docs/info/customs/customs_procedures.pdfAllTeaches good practices for the implementation of national trade legislations and enforcement of international trade laws.The GRA - Customs Division states the various fuctions of the division which include ensuring that procedures expressed in the national legislations are adhered to and implemented by customs aimed at generating revenue, environmental security, protection of society and combating fraud. The publication educates stakeholders on the general import and export procedures and customs regimes.
Electronic Waste Dumping on Ghana Still ContinuesN/AN/AArticle/case studyDetection Investigation2010GhanaWeb:
Richmond Darko MD/MPH candidate
University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine
Emory University Rollins School of Public Health
http://www.ghanaweb.com/GhanaHomePage/NewsArchive/Electronic-Waste-Dumping-on-Ghana-Still-Continues-188950E-wasteEffective regulatory systems and industries. Call for policy change. Adoption of comprehensive regulatory strategies and guidelines by the Ghanaian government concerning the importation and handling of used EEE and e-wasteThis study discusses the degree of illegal e-waste shipment/importation into Ghana and its health and socio-economic impacts supported by statistics. It discusses how e-waste recycling is being left to the youth of poor communities like Agbogbloshie who try to extract valuable materials from the waste. The joint efforts international organisations/stakeholders (like OECD, The Basel Convention, US EPA, etc) are putting into reducing or stopping the shipment of hazardous waste, through international legislation, is also discussed and suggestions and likely solutions are brought to light.
Man jailed for illegally exporting electrical waste to AfricaN/AUK ↔ AfricaArticle/case studyDetection Investigation Prosecution Sentencing2014The Guardianhttp://www.theguardian.com/environment/2014/jun/20/man-jailed-illegal-exporting-electrical-waste-africaHazardous wasteRules/laws for governing the exportation of e-waste are put in place to protect human life and the environmentThis articles talks about the case of Mr. Joe Benson a national of Britain who illegally exported 46 tonnes of hazardous waste (e-waste) to African countries (Ghana, Nigeria, The Congo and Ivory Coast). The shipment was however intercepted by the Environmental Agency's Environmental crime team lead by Mr. Andrew Higham, and the culprit was arrested and convicted. He was sentenced to 16 months in prison at Snaresbrook crown Court.
Building local capacity to address the flow of e-wastes and electrical and electronic products destined for reuse in selected African countries and augment the sustainable management of resources through the recovery of materials in ewastesN/AEU ↔ West AfricaScientific documentDetection Investigation2010Öko-Institut e.V. (Stefan Seum & Andreas Hermann )http://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/eWaste/E-waste_Africa_Project_Europe.pdfE-wasteInformation sharing
Take-back Policies
Providing financial support for waste management systems
Competent authorities and compliance systems
Tool - Detection / investigation
This document serves as a resource tool detailing the flows of end-of-life EEE from Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium by identifing particular pathways and stakeholders that paly major roles in the export of used and end-of-life EEE to West African countries. The main objective of the project is to develop guidance on managing the potential health risks and environmental hazards that stem from such exports and their subsequent, potentially unsound, treatment.
Used and end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment imported into Liberia: E-Waste Africa project of the Secretariat of the Basel ConventionN/AN/AScientific document2012Basel Convention UNEP EMPAhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/Basel%20Convention/docs/eWaste/E-waste_Africa_Project_NationalAssessment_Liberia.pdfE-wasteProvisions for the establishment of standards by the EPA, including water and air quality, toxic chemicals and pesticides (including POPs), hazardous wastes and materials, as well as waste management. Awareness workshops on WEEE for decision makers and regulators. Establish a registration mechanism (Registry for WEEE and EEE).This report presents a qualitative and - to some extent - a quantitative assessment of the situation of the import of used and end-of-life electrical and electronic equipment imported into Liberia from around the world. Taking into accouunt the characteristics of the country, detailing the methods of data collection, discussing current policies and legislation governing import and export of WEEE and recommendations that can be taken into account to help stem illegal transboundary movement of hazardous waste.
National Training Workshop on e-Waste Ghana, Tema July 25-27, 2011. SBC e-waste Africa Project, Component 4N/AN/AProjects/InitiativesDetection Investigation Prosecution2011IMPELhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-EWASTE-REP-TrainingWorkshop-20110725.English.pdfe-wasteInter-agency and international collaborations very much necessary for effectively combating waste shipments to Ghana.This report is on the national stakeholders workshop held under the framework of the SBC e-waste Africa project to train Ghanaian regulatory and enforcement officials on detection and inspection of illegal hazardous wastes shipments, in particluar e-waste. The various existing legislations and conventions relating to waste shipments, as well as the inspection methods and classification criteria were highlighted at the workshop. Discussions were also made on the the health and environmental impacts of e-waste. A draft manual on e-waste insepction and enforcement was presented. Furthermore, a site visit to the ACS container terminal at Ghana Ports exposed participants to some of the practical challenges the confronts customs officials at the port.
Report E-waste Africa Project Component FourN/AEU & US ↔ AfricaProjects/InitiativesDetection Investigation Prosecution2012IMPELhttp://www.basel.int/Portals/4/download.aspx?d=UNEP-CHW-EWASTE-REP-EwasteAfricaProgrammeComponent4-20121022.English.pdfN/AImprove information flow of e-products and e-waste moving across Africa. Enhance the capacity to monitor and control transboundary movements of e-waste and to prevent illegal trafficThis report describes the outcomes and experiences of the activities that have been organised as part of Componet Four of the e-waste Africa Project
E-waste imports and management practices in Ghana: 'A case study of Accra-Tema Metropolitan area'Scientific document2014HENRY AYIKAI OKINEElectrical and electronic waste (WEEE)This study was conducted to analyse the flow of UEEE imports into Ghana, how such imports are handled and managed; and further assess the potential environmental and health challenges associated with the current management practices.
Database on Transboundary Movement of Wastes destined for Recovery OperationsIllegal transboundary shipment of wasteN/AOnline tool2016OECDhttp://www2.oecd.org/waste/AllThis interactive database aims at facilitating the paperwork of all parties involved in transboundary movements of wastes by providing the necessary information to complete the forms. The database includes practical information and specific requirements or provisions for each country.
"Green Fence Campaign' initiated by General Administration of Customs (GAC), aiming at anti-smuggling of “foreign garbageSmuggling, False declaration of loads/misclassification, Non-declarationEU-China, Japan-China, US-ChinaProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2012General Adiministration of Customs, People's Republic of Chinahttp://finance.china.com.cn/roll/20140127/2155915.shtml http://info.clean.hc360.com/2013/09/110859239212.shtmlAll imported solid wasteInter-departmental cooperation, strict on-spot inspection, intensified investigation, cracked down multiple smuggling groupsDuring the campain, the Customs will vigorously inspect the declaring documents and imported goods. Any fraudulently declared goods will not be released and ordered to be shipped back. Also, the Customs will carry out post-clearance audits on solid waste importing and processing enterprises. Intensive investigations were conducted to crack down solid waste smuggling. Most severe punishment was applied to violators
Operation DemeterSmugglingEU-China, North America-ChinaProjects/InitiativesDetection2009 Demeter I 2012 Demeter II 2013 Demeter IIIWCO RILO, General Adiministration of Customs, People's Republic of ChinaDay2_S4_05_RILO AP (2).pdf http://www.wcoomd.org/~/media/WCO/Public/Global/PDF/Topics/Enforcement%20and%20Compliance/Activities%20and%20Programmes/Environmental%20Crime/Ex_sum_Demeter_EN.ashx?db=webAllImproved coordination of customs internationallytargeted mainly illicit maritime consignments of hazardous and other waste transported from Europe and other waste producing regions to the Asia Pacific region, which is increasingly becoming a dumping ground for this sort of unwanted waste. Operation Demeter in China is an extention of national Green Fence Campaign. It involves receiving and sending alert and feedback of waste smuggling cases within WCO's communication system.
Operation Sky Hole PatchingSmugglingAsia-PasificProjects/InitiativesDetection,Investigation, ProsecutionSince 2006 till nowWCO RILO, UNEP ROAP, General Adiministration of Customs, People's Republic of ChinaDay2_S4_05_RILO AP (2).pdfE-wasteImproved international cooperationThis operation aims at illicit trading and smuggling of O-zone Depletion Substances (ODS). According to statistics, the Chinese customs cracked down cases involving 50 tonnes of ODS. Together with the operation, cases on illegal electrical waste smuggling such as airconditioner and refridgirator are also detected, investigated and prosecuted
Training Workshop on Prevention and Control of Illegal Transboundary Movement of Wastes/E-wasteN/AN/AProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation2013BCRC China, UNEP, GACChttp://en.bcrc.cn/col/1385254775014/2013/11/28/1385568891764.htmlN/AA comprehensive analysis of waste transboundary movement was conducted with respect to legislation, management, technology and others, to explore an effective way to prevent and control illegal transboundary movement of wastes. The customs officials had a lively discussion with the experts, exchanged experience and issues during customs enforcement, and made positive discussions on closer cooperation among the customs, environmental department, quality inspection department and others.On 26-30 August 2013, the Training Workshop was held in Haiphong City, Vietnam and Sanya City, Hainan Province, China, respectively. The main objectives of this workshop are: to increase institutional and individual capacity of the customs agencies on prevention and control of transboundary illegal trafficking of waste and e-waste; and to undertake on-site training for problem-solving, e.g., risk profiling, identification of wastes/e-waste and return-back procedures.
National Green Customs Training WorkshopN/AN/AProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2014UNEP/ROAP, GACC/ASB,BCRC Chinahttp://en.bcrc.cn/col/1257488855984/2014/07/31/1406780920768.htmlALLChallenges and difficulties for customs on combating illegal trade in waste and chemicals were discussed, and suggestions were put forward with respect to promoting intelligence and information exchange, enhancing on-site inspection and establishing take-back procedures of illegal shipments. Enhanced technical skils of Chinese custom officers on detecting, monitoring and reporting of waste. Explored opportunities on cooperation between customs and environmental authorities.In order to further improve the overall enforcement capacity of China Customs on combating illegal traffic of waste and chemicals, the National Green Customs Training Workshop for Customs Officers was co-organized by United Nations Environmental Programme Regional Office for Asia Pacific (UNEP/ROAP), Anti-Smuggling Bureau of the General Administration of Customs of China (GACC/ASB) and Basel Convention Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific (BCRC China) on 24-25 July in Ningbo, China.
Sino-Dutch Hotline MechanismN/ANetherland-ChinaProject/Initiative/Case studies (investigation, court cases...)Detection, Investigation, Prosecution2008MEP China, VROM Netherlandhttp://www.customs.gov.cn/publish/portal0/tab46995/info382708.htmALLEstablished communication mechanism for illegal waste exportationMEP of PRC and Kingdom of Netherland have agreed to cooperate in the field of toxic and hazardous waste management. To achieve this goal, information exchange, mutual visit and workshops were conducted. From 2010 to 2012, there were 26 information exchanges, 3 stopped illegal waste transboundary movement, and 1 return of illegally imported waste. A successful case of the cooperation mechanism is described in the attached report
EU-China Working Group on WasteN/AEU-ChinaProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation, ProsecutionEstablished in 2014EC, GACChttp://www.customs.gov.cn/publish/portal0/tab65602/info706983.htm http://news.xinhuanet.com/world/2015-02/04/c_127458202.htmALLInternational cooperation, information exchange, policy transparencyIn Beijing on 16 May 2014 the European Commission (the “EC”) and the General Administration of China Customs (the “GACC”) signed the Strategic Framework of Cooperation (the “SF”) which included a chapter on waste shipments as a new field of cooperation. In this context the Waste WG has been established. According to the SF the mandate of the Waste WG is to explore the possibilities to deepen the cooperation to tackle the illicit trade in waste between the EU and China. Two WG meeting has been held.The legal and illegal waste trade between EU and China has been reviewed, with problems identified and next cooperation actions proposed. Two WG meetings have been held.The situation of legal and illegal waste trade between EU and China has been reviewed, with problems identified and next cooperation actions proposed. Next step, the Waste WG is going to prepare a white paper on EU-China waste trade supervision.
China-Japan Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Import and Export of WasteN/AJapan- ChinaProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation, ProsecutionEstablished in 2007China, Japanhttp://www.mepscc.cn/tabid/75/InfoID/627/frtid/157/Default.aspxALLInternational cooperation; Multi-agency communication; Hotline mechanism to promote information exchangeAccording to the mutural understanding under the China-Japan Environment Minister Meeting, this work group was established and the first meeting was held in 2008. In 2010, the hotline mechanism on combating illegal transboundary movement of waste was established. The hotline aims at sharing information on policy and laws, exchanging intelligence on suspicious illegal export/import, and facilitating take-back procedure.
Basel Forum in Asia-Pacific Region (APR) on Promotion of Basel Convention ImplementationN/AALLProjects/InitiativesDetection2013-2015BCRC China, Korea Kyonggi University, National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER)http://ch.bcrc.cn/col/1256347017715/2014/10/31/1414917671379.htmlALLInformation sharing on transboundary movement of hazardous waste; examples of Basel Convention implementation in the Pacific region (Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Korea, Japan…)Three Basel Forums were held in Shanghai, Beijing and Ilsan respectively, first two being organized by Basel Convention Regional Centre for Asia and the Pacific (BCRC China), the third by Korea Kyonggi University, National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER). The aim of Basel Forum is to promote academic exchange in the field of the implementation of the Basel Convention and the environmentally sound management of hazardous and other waste in Asia and the Pacific regions. Thus, the Basel Forums will share the knowledge and experiences among international experts to promote mutual understanding in these areas. The Basel Forum will also encourage and facilitate cooperation through appropriate forms, including attendance at meetings, information exchange, research cooperation, and to establish a network of experts on the Basel Convention in Asia and the Pacific.
Regional Enforcement Network for Chemicals and Waste (REN)N/AN/AProjects/InitiativesDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2015SIDA, UNEPhttp://www.basel.int/Default.aspx?tabid=2921ALLincrease the collective capacity of law enforcement agencies, introduce activities that would encourage legal trade in chemicals and waste, strengthen further the flourishing platform for regional enforcement networking, provide a cooperating mechanismProject Ren is a project financed by the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (SIDA) and implemented by UNEP in 25 countries in Northeast Asian, South Asia and Southeast Asia. It aims to combat smuggling of harmful substances and hazardous waste in the region by setting up an informal network serving as a platform on information exchange and experience sharing for the participating countries as well as partners in order to enhance the capacity of the participating countries. One of which includes the fourth network workshop held in Bangkok.
Custom Enforcement Network (CEN)N/AN/AOnline toolDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2011RILOhttp://www.inece.org/illegaltimber/GwangHyeon.pdfALLincreased efficiency on custom information sharing. Secure data exchangeThere are 11 Reginal Intelligence Liason Offices (RILO) in the world. RILO Asian Pacific (AP) is one of the members of “Global RILO Network” and one of regional entities of World Customs Organization. Customs Enforcement Network (CEN) enables Customs to carry out analysis and to produce intelligence. It is internet based, to ensure cost efficient & accessibility, ID & P/W, Data protection done by encryption technology to ensure security.
H2000 national customs information management systemN/AN/AOnline toolDetectionGACCguideline for H2000 System for custom clearance-Chinese.pdfAllIncreased customs clearing efficiency, improved automation on crime inspectionDeveloped based on original H883 management system, which lacks the function of information sharing through network. Microsoft was involved in the development of H2000. H2000 system categorizes importing and exporting goods, also does basic logic check on declared goods. There could be further development on connecting hardware equipments such as weighing balance and X-ray scanner to automate the checking process, hence further increase custom clearing efficiency
Guidelines & References of Control on Import and Export of Waste from Hong Kong Environmental Protection DepartmentSmuggling, False declaration of loads/misclassification, Non-declarationEU-China, North America-ChinaReports/Studies/PapersDetection,Investigation, Prosecution2015EPD Hong Konghttp://www.epd.gov.hk/epd/english/environmentinhk/waste/guide_ref/guide_wiec_en3.htmlALLBusiness model of inter-regional waste tradeA brief introduction that lists the general situation of waste import and export activities trend, law enforcement procedure, shipping management and networking with external agencies. Also listed a few difficulties encountered during EPD's daily work
Electronic evidence collection for solid waste smuggling based on crime case 1107SmugglingEU-China, Japan-China, US-ChinaPapers / Case study (investigation, court cases...)Investigation2014Bintao Zou, Dianlian Customs, People's Republic of ChinaElectronic evidence collection in the solid waste smuggling case 1107-Chinese.pdfE-wasteInter-departmental cooperation, technical method on electronic evidence collectionUnder the coordination of General Administration of Customs, an organized e-waste smuggling group was cracked down. Based on estimation, about 2,800 cargos/72,000 tons of e-waste were smuggled into China by their hand. The investigation process required collaboration with technical offices of local police for extraction of electronic communication, which brought breakthrough on evidence collection for prosecution later
Interception of hazardous solid waste by menglian customSmugglingN/ACase studyInvestigation, Prosecution2014http://www.customs.gov.cn/publish/portal174/tab61586/info711830.htmHazardous wasteexpert needed for identification of substancesMenglian custom has intercepted 21.62 tons of smuggling grey powder substance. After identification, the substance was arsenic and tin containing ash, which is forbidden for importation.
Interception of e-waste by huangpu customFalse declaration of load/misclassificationN/ACase studyDetection, Investigation2014http://www.customs.gov.cn/publish/portal0/tab65602/info710594.htmE-wasteHuangpu custom has intercepted 743 wasted portable batteries, weighing 146.83kg. The importing company claimed the cargo to be 1890 imported portable batteries, but found out by the custom that 743 of them were wasted ones.
2014 National Report of China (table 9)Smuggling, False declaration of loads/misclassification, Non-declarationALLStatisticsDetection, Investigation2014MEP Chinahttp://ers.basel.int/ERS-Extended/FeedbackServer/fsadmin.aspx?fscontrol=respondentReport&surveyid=65&voterid=47188&readonly=1&nomenu=1ALLCooperation between environment protection agency and customs,2013,MEP launched “Special rectification for import of solid waste”, and implemented fight against “Foreign garbage smuggling” jointly with the Customs, to strengthen the import of solid waste management joint action, through strict examination and approval, departmental interaction and environmental law enforcement supervision effectively curb the illegal importation of “foreign garbage”, prevent secondary pollution problems generated during the reuse processing of imported waste, and promote the Convention Implement work, and earnestly safeguard the environmental security. Due to the large amount of cases which didn't proceed as intended, only summaries on Hong Kong and Macau were given.
GCI- Green Customs InitiativeIllegal trade in ODS, toxic chemical products and hazardous wastes.N/AProjects/InitiativesDetectionEstablished in 2004UNEP, Secretariat of Basel, Cartagena, CITES, Montreal, Rotterdam, Stockholm, INTERPOL, the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, UNODC, WCOhttp://www.greencustoms.org/index.htmHazardous waste, Toxic Chemicals, ODS, Pesticides, POPsN/AThe Green Customs Initiative is an unprecedented partnership of international organisations cooperating to prevent the illegal trade in environmentally-sensitive commodities and facilitation of the legal trade in these. Its objective is to enhance the capacity of customs and other relevant enforcement personnel to monitor and facilitate the legal trade and to detect and prevent illegal trade in environmentally-sensitive commodities covered by the relevant conventions and multilateral environmental agreements (MEAs).
Green Customs Guide to Multilateral Environmental AgreementsIllegal trade in environmentally sensistive productsN/AOnline ToolDetection2008GCIhttp://www.greencustoms.org/reports/guide/Green_Customs_Guide_new.pdfHazardous waste, Toxic Chemicals, ODS, Pesticides, POPsDescribed per environmental commodityThe guide provides an overview of the conventions, their requirements related to trade in the “environmentally sensitive”, and customs role in facilitating their legal trade and preventing illegal trade.
INTERPOL Pollution Crime Working GroupPollutionN/AProjects/InitiativesN/AEstablished in 1992INTERPOLhttp://www.interpol.int/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/Environmental-Compliance-and-Enforcement-Committee/Pollution-Crime-Working-GroupN/AN/AThe INTERPOL Pollution Crime Working Group initiates and leads a number of projects to combat the transport, trading and disposal of hazardous wastes or resources in contravention of national and international laws
AECEN- Asian Environmental Compliance and Enforcement NetworkEnvironmental CrimeInvolving AsiaProjects/InitiativesDetectionEstablished in 2005AECENhttp://www.aecen.org/N/ASee website for documents with good practicesThe mission of AECEN is to promote improved compliance with environmental legal requirements in Asia through regional exchange of innovative policies and practices.
Operational Guidance for the Takeback of Detected Illegal Shipments of WasteIllegal shipments of wasteN/AOnline Tool (manual)DetectionUnknownINECE Seaport Environmental Security Networkhttp://inece.org/resource/takeback-guidance/N/AN/AThe document summarizes what steps can be taken in case of an illegal shipment of waste that needs to be taken back to the state of export and includes examples of good practices under the Basel Convention.
Topics covered in the Guidance document include an introduction to illegal traffic, guidance on what to do when illegal traffic occurs, and common problems with the takeback of illegal traffic. The document the provides a procedure to return illegally shipped waste, including a step-by-step decision tree and frequently asked questions.
Asian Network for prevention of illegal transboundary movement of hazardous wastesN/AN/AProjects/InitiativesN/AEstablished in 2003http://www.env.go.jp/en/recycle/asian_net/N/AN/AThe objective is gaining appropriate control on such illegal shipments
Basel Convention Country Fact SheetScientific documentAsian Networkhttp://www.env.go.jp/en/recycle/asian_net/Country_Information/National_Reporting.htmlhazardous wasteCountry Fact Sheet (Brunei Darussalam / Cambodia / China / Hong Kong SAR, China / Indonesia / Japan / Republic of Korea / Malaysia / Philippines / Singapore / Thailamd / Vietnam )
IMPEL TFS Enforcement Actions IallN/ACase StudyDetection, Inspection2008IMPELhttp://www.ies.be/files/repo/IMPEL-TFS_enforcement_project_I_final_report_June_2008.pdfpaper, cardboard, plastic, metal, WEEE, municipal waste, ELV, wood, textile waste, otherN/AReport with results of inspections on waste shipments coordinated in different European countries.
IMPEL TFS Enforcement Actions IIallN/ACase StudyDetection, inspection2009IMPELhttps://zoek.officielebekendmakingen.nl/blg-55360.pdfpaper, cardboard, plastic, metal, WEEE, municipal waste, ELV, wood, textile waste, otherN/AReport with results of inspections on waste shipments coordinated in different European countries.
IMPEL TFS Enforcement Actions IIIallN/ACase StudyDetection, Inspection2012-2013IMPELhttp://www.weee-forum.org/sites/default/files/documents/fr-2013-22-enforcement-actions-iii.pdfpaper, cardboard, plastic, metal, WEEE, municipal waste, ELV, wood, textile waste, otherN/AReport with results of inspections on waste shipments coordinated in different European countries.
Intelligence Project on Environmental CrimeN/AN/ACase StudyN/A2015ENviCrimeNethttps://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/publications/ipec_report_on_environmental_crime_in_europe.pdfN/AN/AStrategic report on environmental crime, including case studies on waste trafficking
NEST- National Environmental Task ForceN/AN/AScientific documentN/A2014INTERPOLhttp://www.interpol.int/content/download/18678/166703/version/9/file/NEST%20Manual%20-%20English%20-%2014%20Feb%202014.pdfN/AN/AManual on how to set up a national environmental task force, bringing together compliance and enforcement agencies
Project Charter
Feasibility Study for the establishment of an Electronic Data Interchange for Waste Shipments
N/AN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2014EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/inspections.htmAllAdvice for the establishment of an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Waste Shipments
Training
Protocol
Study launched by DG Environment to examine the feasibility of establishing an Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) for Waste Shipments. The main project objective is to assess the current status and to capture the business requirements from a wide audience of stakeholders. This document together with the Architecture Overview represents the main deliverables of the project.The Project Charter elaborates the WSR-related problems and documents the stakeholders and user needs.
GUIDANCE on permitting and inspection of waste management operationsN/AN/AScientific documentInspection2012EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/studies.htmAll + a focus on WEEELegal requirements
Waste management operations
Permitting and registration
Monitoring and inspection
Study regarding permitting and inspection practices related to waste legislation in EU Member States. The overall aim of the study is to support and improve in particular the implementation of the amin EU waste legislations. The specific study objectives are to prepare guidance documents and a manual for permitting (including classification issues) and inspections (including monitoring) of waste management operations.
PRACTICAL MANUAL on permitting and inspection of waste management operationsN/AN/AScientific documentInspection2011EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/studies.htmAll + a focus on WEEE20 best practice examples
Checklists
Legal obligations of MS for permitting and inspection
Letter of advice to announce on-site inspections
The purpose of this manual is to accompany the guidance document with providing information on a more practical level. The key element of the manual is the provision of 20 best practice examples, elaborated on the basis of existing permitting and inspection practice applied within the EU Member States. Further tools were elaborated to enhance the process of permitting and inspections
Environmental, social and economic impact assessment of possible requirements and criteria for waste shipment inspections, controls and on-the-spot checksN/AN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2010EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/pdf/FinalReport_ENV(10)370155.pdfAll + WEEE, plastic waste, metal waste, paper & cardboard waste, ELVs especially mentionedTraining
Standardisation in legislation interpretation
Inspection criteria - harmonisation
Cooperation
Capacity
Intelligence (risk profiling, assessment, inspection planning, )
This report assesses the impacts of a number of critera and requirements for inspections, controls and on-the-spot checks of waste shipments to be contained in future EU legislation.
Interactive Map on EU Waste ShipmentsN/AFrom and To EUOnline ToolInspection2010-2013Eurostathttp://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/web/waste/transboundary-waste-shipmentsAllN/AThe interactive map shows the amounts of waste, both hazardous and non-hazardous, that are shipped in and out of EU countries.
Hessian Database for Waste Transports – waste classification and procedures for shipments of wasteIllegal shipments of wasteN/AOnline ToolIntelligence
Inspection
Detection
Hessian Agency for Environment and Geology (HLUG) and regional government office in Darmstadt (Regierungspräsidium Darmstadt)http://www.hlnug.de/themen/abfall/hessian-database-for-waste-transports.htmlAllCan help authorities knowing if a waste can be exported or notThe database provides extensive information that makes the time consuming search for different laws, regulations, lists and other requirements superfluous. The database can be helpful for any person involved with shipments of waste: employees of the environmental administrations, police, customs authorities and the Federal Office for Goods Transports, companies, dealers and brokers.
The database consists of two parts: Part 1 can be used for the identification and classification of wastes. Part 2 enables the user to determine the applicable shipment procedure for the waste.
Technical guidelines on transboundary movements of electrical and electronic waste and used electrical and electronic equipment, in particular regarding the distinction between waste and non-waste under the Basel Convention (adopted by COP.12, May 2015)Illegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2015SBChttp://www.basel.int/TheConvention/ConferenceoftheParties/Meetings/COP12/tabid/4248/mctl/ViewDetails/EventModID/8051/EventID/542/xmid/13027/Default.aspxWEEEDistinction WEEE/EEE rules for shipment of WEEE under Basel ConventionThe technical guidelines provide guidance on the application of the transboundary movements provisions to transboundary movements of WEEE and UEEE that may or may not be e-waste, in particular on the distinction between waste and non-waste,
Revised correspondents guidelines n1 WEEEIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2007Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWEEECommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n2 waste generated by armed forces or relief organisationsIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2008Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWaste generated by armed forces or relief organisationsCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n3 certificate for subsequent non-interim recovery or disposalIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2007Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmAllThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n4 classification of WEEE and fly ash from coal-fired power plantIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2007Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWEEE
Fly ash from coal-fired power plant
Common EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n5 classification of wood wasteIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2007Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWood wasteCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n6 classification of slag from processing of copper alloysIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2007Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmSlag form processing of copper alloysCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n7 classification of glass waste originating from CRTIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2009Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmCRTCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n8 classification of waste cartridges containing toner or inkIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2009Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWaste cartridges containing toner or inkCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Revised correspondents guidelines n9 shipment of waste vehiclesIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
2011Waste shipments Correspondentshttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/guidance.htmWaste vehiclesCommon EU understanding on WSR interpretationThe Correspondents' guidelines represent the common understanding of all Member States on how Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste (Waste Shipment Regulation – WSR) should be interpreted. They are not legally binding.
Coordinated audit on the enforcement of the European Waste Shipment RegulationIllegal shipments of wasteN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Prosecution
2013EUROSAIhttp://www.eca.europa.eu/sites/cc/Lists/CCDocuments/other%20publications/Coordinated_audit_on_the_enforcement_of_the_European_Waste_Shipment_Regulation.pdfAllBest practices on enforcement of the EWSR, as well as on information management and exchange and on penalising infringements.Compilation of audit reports on the enforcement of the European Waste Shipment Regulation of eight countries.
Commission Staff Working Paper - Impact Assessment Accompanying document to a legislative proposal and additional non-legislative measures strengthening the inspections and enforcement of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 June 2006 on shipments of waste.Illegal shipments of wasteEU-Africa
EU-Asia
Scientific documentInspection
Investigation
2013EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/shipments/pdf/sec_2013_268.pdfAllInspection plan
Control of up-stream activities
Training
Guidance for inspection
This Impact Assessment report examines options to strengthen the inspections and enforcement of the WSR in order to effectively prevent illegal waste shipments.
EFFACE Conclusions and recommendationsEnvironmental CrimeN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
Sentencing
2016EFFACEhttp://efface.eu/efface-conclusions-and-recommendationsAllSerie of recommendations to improve enforcement, cooperation and data collectionThis report presents the conclusions and policy recommendations formulated in this document are based on earlier research done in the 40 monthe EU-funded research project EFFACE, shich included legal analysis, data analyisi, various case studies, and an analysis of the strenghts, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the current apporach of the EU to combting environmental crime. Nine different policy areas were selected for the SWOT analysis. Based on the results of the SWOT analysis and a discussion of these results among th EFFACE partners, an in-depth analysis of possible options was made for each of the nine areas. Those reports constitute the basis for the current recommendations which are addressed at both EU level and Member State policy makers. In addition to these recommendations, questions for further research are identified.
Environmental crime and the EU. Synthesis of the Research Project “European Union Action to Fight Environmental Crime” (EFFACE)Environmental CrimeN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
Sentencing
2016EFFACEhttp://efface.eu/final-efface-report-environmental-crime-and-euAllSerie of recommendations to improve enforcement, cooperation and data collectionThis synthesis report presents the most important results and recommendations of the EFFACE research project. It is written for a non-academic audience, notably policy-makers. References are kept to a minimum and they point, mainly, to the research results of EFFACE.
Environmental Networking HandbookEnvironmental CrimeN/AScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2013Themis Networkhttp://www.rec.org/publication.php?id=417N/ACooperationPart 1: The need for efficient and effective multidisciplinary enforcement
Part 2: Possible roles of CSO and NGO networks in fighting environmental crime
Countering WEEE illegal trade summary reportIlegal trade of WEEEFrom, To and Intra EUScientific documentInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2015CWIThttp://cwitproject.eu/WEEESeries of recommendations:
- enhanced prosecution and sentencing
- smarter inspections
- LEA capacity buidling
- National WEEE network
- International WEEE network
Summary of the 2-years research project CWIT including market analysis, legal analysis, crime analysis, individual recommendations and roadmap.
Container Control Programme - Annual ReportEnvironmental CrimeReportDetection Inspection2014UNODC - WCOhttps://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/drug-trafficking/horizontal-initiatives.htmlmainly chemincals , hazardous, weee…Risk analysis & detection practicies in portsThe UNODC-WCO container control programme has established improved customs controls in some countries, targeted at transnational organized crime. This programme is seeing a rise in a new diversity of contraband far beyond drugs, arms, counterfeit products and ivory – but also ozone depleting chemicals and hazardous waste ...
Ghana e-waste project National strategy.
Annex Guidelines
Illegal trade of WEEEFrom To and Intra GhanaScientific documentDetection2011EPA-Ghana; Green Advocacy Ghana; EMPA; SBC; UNEPN/AWEEEDistinction WEEE, UEEE/second hand EEEThese guidelines on second hand electrical and electronic equipment provide information for:
- Persons arranging shipments of WEEE into and out of Ghana;
- Holders of EEE arranging transboundary transport of these equipment who wish to avoid compliance with the Basel, Rotterdam and Bamako Conventions and dump the waste in Ghana;
- Authorities responsible for the inspection, control and enforcement of waste shipment.
Regulations on the export
of used electrical and electronic
equipment and guidance to
test of functionality
Illegal trade of WEEEGuidelines2015Danish Environmental Protection Agencyhttp://www.mst.dk/service/publikationer/publikationsarkiv/2015/feb/regulations-on-the-export-of-used-electronic/WEEEHow to ensure compliance with the rules on shipment of UEEEThis guidance document contains information on the rules on shipment of used electric and electronic equipment. The guidance can be used by exporters in order to ensure compliance with the rules. The guidance document also contain product specific guidelines for test of functionality.
How to pack
used
electronics
prior to
transport
Illegal trade of WEEEFrom Denmark to other countriesLeafletInspection2012Danish Environmental Protection Agencyhttp://www.mst.dk/virksomhed-myndighed/affald/import-og-eksport-af-affald/transport-af-elektronik/WEEEHow to package UEEThis leaflet is for exporters ofUEE from Denmark to another country. If the packaging instructions are not followed, used electronics will
normally be considered electronic waste. Special rules1 apply to electronic waste. In particular it is illegal to ship electronic waste containing hazardous material to non-OECD countries.
Import restrictions
on used electric and
electronic equipment
Guidance
Illegal trade of WEEEGuidance doc2015Danish Environmental Protection Agencyhttp://mst.dk/service/publikationer/publikationsarkiv/2016/feb/import-restrictions-on-used-electric-and-electronic-equipment/WEEEImport restrictions on UEEE/WEEEThe guidance document lists countries that have import-restrictions on import of certain types of used electric and electronical equipment. Exporters of used equipment must be aware of this.
Exporting consumer goods: Second-hand articles or waste?Mainly Western countries to Africa, AsiaGuidelinesDetection Inspection2016Swiss Confederation - FOEN Federal Office for the Environmenthttp://www.bafu.admin.ch/publikationen/publikation/01613/index.html?lang=en&download=NHzLpZig7t,lnp6I0NTU042l2Z6ln1ad1IZn4Z2qZpnO2Yuq2Z6gpJCGeoJ3hGym162dpYbUzd,Gpd6emK2Oz9aGodetmqaN19XI2IdvoaCVZ,s-.pdfThis information brochure gives tips for distinguishing between waste and second-hand goods and contains practical advice on how to conform to the relevant environmental regulations. It is directed principally at traders, carriers and relief organisations and aims.
Training Package on EU Waste LegislationN/AN/AOnline toolSentencing2013EChttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/legal/law/waste_law.htmAllOverview of legislation applicable to waste management and waste shipment
Trainers guide
Training material for national judges on Waste legislation. It includes presentations, exercises, case studies, etc.) on::
- Waste in EU economy
- Waste Framework Directive
- Waste case study I
- WEEE Directive
- Landfill Directive
- Waste Shipment Regulation
- Waste case study II
- Important ECJ case law on Waste legislation

Also Training the Trainers materials
The Toxic Truth About a company
called Trafigura,
a ship called
the Probo Koala,
and the dumping
of toxic waste in
Côte d’Ivoire
False declaration of load/Misclassification
Waste related crimes
Unauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal etc of waste
Illegal discharges to air, land and water
EU-West AfricaScientific documentDetection
Investigation
Prosecution
Sentencing
2006Amnesty Internationalhttp://www.amnestyusa.org/sites/default/files/afr310022012eng.pdfMining and quarrying, EnergyLaws, Regulations, StandardsProbo Koala case. This report is the culmination of a three-year investigation by Amnesty International and Greenpeace Netherlands into the dumping, the events that led to it, and the action taken in response to the dumping. It is a story of corporate crime, human rights abuses and the failures of multiple governments to act to protect people and the environment from companies bent on making profit with scant regard for the human or environmental costs. This case shows how national systems for enforcement of international law have failed to keep up with companies that operate trans-nationally. It exposes how failures by the Netherlands and decisions made by a private company in the United Kingdom contributed to the disaster that unfolded in Côte d’Ivoire. It calls for far more robust action by governments to investigate, punish and redress corporate crimes that lead to human rights abuses and environmental damage. The report lays out a clear case for the legal responsibilities of governments beyond their own borders and demonstrates how the exercise of extra-territorial jurisdiction in specific cases and contexts is vital to ensure that human rights are protected and those responsible for criminal acts are held to account.
Nigeria Waste Imports from ItalyFalse declaration of load/Misclassification,
European Waste Shipment Regulation related violation
Illegal transboundary movement of waste
Waste related crimes
Unauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal of waste
Illegal discharges to air, land and water
EU-West AfricaCase studies (investigations/court cases)Detection, Investigation, Prosecution1993Trade & Environment Database- University of Americahttp://www1.american.edu/ted/nigeria.htmHazardous wastes (ex. PCB, asbestos fiber, dioxin)Cooperation (take-back procedure)
Tools for investigation
Laws, Regulations, Standards
Intelligence (DumpWatch Netwok)
In 1987, Italian businessmen Gianfranco Raffaeli and Renato Pent, of the waste broker firms Ecomar and Jelly Wax respectively, signed an illegal agreement with Nigerian businessman, Sunday Nana, to use his property for storage of 18,000 drums of hazardous waste for approximately $100 a month (see JELLYWAX and BARREL cases). The wastes were exported from the port of Pisa, and elsewhere in Italy, to the receiving firm in Nigeria, the Iruekpen Construction Company, owned by Sunday Nana. The wastes were imported as substances "relating to the building trade, and as residual and allied chemicals." Local Nigerian officials discovered the illegal toxic waste stored at the port of Koko.
POPs in Africa hazardous waste trade 1980-200 obsolete pesticide stockpilesIllegal transboundary movement of wasteTo AfricaScientific documentationDetection, Investigation, Prosecution
sentencing
2016Greenpeace Internationalhttp://www.greenpeace.org/international/Global/international/planet-2/report/2001/5/pops-in-africa-hazardous-wast.pdfHazardous wastes (pesticides)Law-related (International conventions such as Bamako Convention to prohibit all hazardous, including radioactive waste imports into AfricaInventory of cases of Hazardous waste and pesticides shipped mainly from OECD countries to African countries, Nigeria inclusive were reviewed.
Transboundary illegal shipments of hazardous waste, toxic chemicals (pesticides) contraband. Chlorofluorohydrocarbons: the Nigerian experienceIllegal transboundary movement of wasteTo AfricaScientific documentationDetection
Investigation
2012Odubela et al.
Fourth International Conference on environmental compliance and enforcement
http://www.inece.org/4thvol2/odubela.pdfHazardous Chemical WasteIntelligence (DumpWatch Netwok, enforcement strategy)Nigeria is facing continuous threats of illegal traffic and trade of hazardous wastes, toxic chemicals [Pesticides], and Contraband chlorofluorohydrocarbons, in spite of the stringent laws enacted after Nigeria’s first experience of hazardous wastes dumping in 1988. This paper describes the country’s new experience, the enforcement strategy put in place, and the constraints.
Waste(s) WatchN/AN/AGuidelinesInspection
Detection
2010IMPELhttp://projectren.org/uploads/files/waste%20watch%20version%20december%202010.pdf.AllGuidelines on enforcement of EWS (waste types)The waste(s) watch is an enforcement tool for inspectors. It gives a first indication
about several waste types and the European Waste Shipment Regulation. The policy
about the different waste(s) could be different in the individual member states and
is subject to changes. Therefore it is always essential to consult your national waste
shipment authority before taking measures. No rights can be derived from this
enforcement tool.
Waste Transport checks ManualN/AN/AGuidelinesInspection
Detection
N/ABelgian federal policehttp://edu.igo-ifj.be/sites/default/files/D_KALUT_AUGIAS_Manual.pdfAllGuidelines on enforcement of EWS (waste types, procedure, legal provisions, inspection, safety issues)This manual has been devised to aid the fi rst-line police offi cer who wants to check a
cross-border transport of waste. It deals with all types of international waste transportations,
whether they are facilitated by lorry, ship, aeroplane or train.
Country ContactsN/AN/AOnline toolN/ASBChttp://www.basel.int/Countries/CountryContacts/tabid/1342/Default.aspxAllInternational CooperationList of country contacts from Competent Authority (the governmental authority designated by a Party to be responsible within such geographical area for receiving the notification of a transboundary movement of hazardous wastes or other wastes, and any information related to it, and for responding to such a notification, as provided in Article 6 of the Con vention on “Transboundary Movement between Parties”.
Enforcement and sanctions – guidanceNot specific to wasteGuidelinesProsecution
Sentencing
2015EA UKhttps://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/468315/LIT_5551.pdfGuidance on how to choose the appropriate response procedure : civil, criminal, administrative, no-prosecutionThis document provides guidance on enforcement and the use of civil and criminal sanctions in the UK.
Offence response Options p.24-89waste crimeGuidelinesProsecution
Sentencing
2016EA UKhttps://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/514087/LIT_9052.pdfGood practices for prosecution and sentencingThis document provides guidance on enforcement and the use of civil and criminal sanctions in the UK.
Summary or Criminal Prosecutions: Environmental Waste Recycling Company and executives were found guilty of fraud and International Environmental Crimes.False declaration of load/Misclassification, Fraud, Smuggling, False documents / document forgery, Incorrect notification, Violated ODS Regulations, Illegal transboundary movement of waste, Unauthorised or harmful deposit, treatment or disposal etc of waste; and illegal discharges to air, land and waterNorth America-AsiaCase studyDetection, Investigation, Prosecution
Sentencing
2013United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)https://cfpub.epa.gov/compliance/criminal_prosecution/index.cfm?action=3&prosecution_summary_id=2481WEEE (e-waste)Tools for detection, Laws, Investigation models, Proceeds of crime, Inspection (enforcement) authoritiesThis report summarizes the conviction of Executive Recycling Inc. and its executives for illegal trafficking of hazardous waste. The improper disposal of electronic waste not only hurts our environment, it also leaves a legacy of environmental hazards for our children and our children’s children.
Enhancing Environmental Sound Management on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) in Africa.Illegal transboundary movement of wasteProjects/InitiativesDetection2012Prof. Oladele Osibanjohttp://www.basel.org.ng/index.php/conference-abstracts/doc_download/65-phase-2-e-waste-africa-projectWEEE (e-waste)Tools for detection, Tools for investigation, Laws, Regulations, Intelligence, Seizures, Inspection (enforcement) authoritiesThe general conclusion from the project in respect of policy and legislation is the need to foster cooperation between African countries and the adoption of a regional approach supporting environmentally sound management of e-waste as well as control of illegal traffic in the region and also to recognize Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a critical factor in Africa’s development and the various E-waste problems in Africa.
Waste Trafficking, Challenges and Actions to be takenFalse declaration of load/Misclassification, Smuggling, False documents / document forgery, Incorrect notification, Violated ODS Regulations, European Waste Shipment Regulation related violation, Illegal transboundary movement of wasteScientific documentDetection, InvestigationBjorn Appleqvist and Jeff Cooperhttp://www.iswa.org/index.php?eID=tx_iswaknowledgebase_download&documentUid=3316.WEEE (e-waste)Laws, Regulations, Customs risk management, Investigation models, Specialised agency, Inspection (enforcement) authoritiesSince waste trafficking is a truly international issue, effective preventative actions must be based upon an international, intelligence-based, cross-organisational and cross-functional cooperation. The successful approach to achievement of this task is to simultaneously pursue two parallel lines of activities believed to reduce the occurrence as well as the effects of waste trafficking activities: making it easier do what is right and at the same time making it harder to do wrong.
Bedfordshire waste firm to pay more than £23,000 for illegal exportFalse declaration of load/Misclassification, False import permit, Smuggling, False documents / document forgery, Illegal transboundary movement of wasteEurope-AsiaArticle/case studyDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2015Hayley Mildrenhttp://resource.co/article/bedfordshire-waste-firm-pay-more-%C2%A323000-illegal-export-9936Hazardous waste
WEEE (e-waste)
Tools for detection, Tools for investigation, Laws, Regulations, Inspection (enforcement) authoritiesThis article describes the prosecution of a Bedfordshire-based waste management company, Monoworld Limited for trying to illegally export waste and the amount the court ordered it to pay. Waste needs to be described accurately at all stages of the process so that everyone knows what they are dealing with.
More guilty verdicts in e-waste cases suggest emerging enforcement trendFalse declaration of load/Misclassification, False documents / document forgery, Missing license or permit, Incorrect notification, Illegal transboundary movement of wasteArticle/case studyDetection, Investigation, Prosecution2013Arnold & Porter LLPhttp://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=b0b270f1-f6e6-4aab-b3f5-6ae3d9566411WEEE (e-waste)Laws, Regulations, Inspection (enforcement) authoritiesThis article summarizes the prosecution of Mark Glover and Discount Computers, Inc. in Michigan, Electronics Recycling Canada (ERC), a recycling company based in Surrey, British Columbia and Executive Recycling, Inc. in Colorado which indicates that federal enforcement officials have not lost interest in enforcing existing e-waste management requirements.
Compendium of summaries of judicial decisions in environment related casesDifferent waste violationsCase studySentencing2004UNEPhttp://www.unep.org/delc/Portals/119/UNEPCompendiumSummariesJudgementsEnvironment-relatedCases.pdfDifferent wastes15 summary cases of various waste violations
Module on Participatory and Procedural Rights in Environmental MattersTraining Manualprevention, assessment2012-2016 (duration of EC project)ERA - Academy of European Lawhttps://www.era.int/upload/dokumente/17170.pdfLaws, regulation, public participation, access to justiceThis manual for trainers is one of the modules of a wider program, within the project "Cooperation with national judges in the field of environmental law". The module is addressed to
judicial training institutes, networks of judges, trainers and end users of European
Union member states wishing to organise training sessions in the area of EU
environmental law with particular focus on the participatory and procedural rights. Key topics covered: 1. Introduction to the participatory and procedural rights in environmental matters
– Aarhus Convention and the EU; 2. Access to information in environmental matters; 3. Public participation in decision making; 4. Access to justice
Module on Biodiversity and Wildlife Trafficking(not waste related crime) wildlife trafficking; illegal loggin and trade of timberTraining Manualassessment2012-2016 (duration of EC project)ERA - Academy of European Lawhttp://www.era-comm.eu/Cooperation_national_judges_environmental_law/module_5/trainers_manual.pdfbetter understanding of the legal aspects related to Wildlife Trafficking and implementing EU instruments; better position to actively apply EU rules transposed into respective national legislation;
excellent opportunity to exchange views regarding implementation practices in Member States.
This training module on Biodiversity and Wildlife Trafficking, developed by ERA on behalf of the European Commission, is addressed to judicial training institutes, networks of judges, national judges, experts from NGOs, academic experts, trainers, any other relevant actors (for example, prosecutors) and end users of European Union Member States wishing to organise training sessions in the area of EU environmental law with particular focus on biodiversity and wildlife trafficking.
Hazardous and electronic waste control and management billIllegal transboundary movement of waste, Waste related crimesLegislation2016Parliament of Ghanahttp://www.parliament.gh/assets/file/BILLS%20%20FOR%202016/FINAL%20HAZARDOUS%20AND%20ELECTRONIC%20WASTE%20CONTROL%20AND%20MANAGEMENT%20%20BILL,%202016.pdfHazardous waste
WEEE (e-waste)
Laws, RegulationsThe object of this Act is to provide for the control, management and disposal of hazardous waste and electronic waste and for related purposes. Part 1 deals with hazardous wastes and other wastes and seeks to domesticate the Basel Convention. Part 2 deals with electrical and electronic wastes. The Act prohibits the importation, exportation, transportation, selling, purchasing or dealing in hazardous wastes or other waste, or depositing of hazardous wastes or other wastes on any land in the country or in the territorial waters of Ghana except as otherwise provided for in the Act.
Workshop Report Trans Frontier Shipment of WasteEuropean Waste Shipment Regulation related violationReportInspection, Detection2016Environment and Climate Regional Accession Networkhttp://www.ecranetwork.org/Files/Workshop_Report_TFS_May_2016_Izmir.pdfAll hazardous wasteTrainingReport on a training/workshop given by ECRAN for authorities working on TFS
Asian Judges Network on EnvironmentProjects/InitiativesProsecution Sentencing2010-ongoingSupported by ADBhttp://www.asianjudges.org/Training / Capacity Building / Information sharingThe AJNE is an information and experience sharing arrangement among senior judges of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC). The network is committed to providing a dynamic forum for judicial capacity building and multilateral exchanges on environmental adjudication.
South African Waste Information Centre (SAWIC)Projects/InitiativesPrevention Detection2005-ongoingdeveloped by the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA)http://sawic.environment.gov.za/?menu=47All wasteCollector of information, documents, guidelines and good practices for internal waste management in S.A. and on import/export of wasteSAWIC is a system used by government and industry to capture routine data on the tonnages of waste generated, recycled and disposed of in South Africa on a monthly and annual basis. Within section 'waste sources and type' some factsheets are provided on specific type of waste (and how to manage them)
Requirements for effective seaport environmental security: collective action at the portsTransboundary
Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal
Article/case studyInspection (and prevention)2011Kopsick N. - 9th Int conference on Environmental Compliance and Enforcementhttp://inece.org/conference/9/proceedings/29_Kopsick.pdfAll wasteNeeds assessment with specific regional focus (West Africa, Asia)Environmental and customs agency officials in West Africa and Asia were surveyed to identify their most critical needs for addressing the illegal
hazardous waste trade. Officials in both regions identified the need for a clear definition of what constitutes a hazardous waste, increased collaboration with port counterparts at the national, regional and international levels, and more effective enforcement capacity through knowledge transfer on specific waste identification, interception and interdiction tools and techniques.
Conducting Environmental Compliance Inspections. Inspector's Field Manual International Editionwaste related crimeTrainingInspection2002US EPAhttp://inece.org/resource/manual/Hazardous wasteExisting practices for compliance inspectorsThis manual represents one internationally accepted model for conducting compliance inspections. However, other models exist that may be equally or more applicable to a particular regulation or program. It is not designed as
guidance for conducting any specific type of inspection (facilitator manual available as well at the same link...)
Principles of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Handbook International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement
April
environmental crime (in general)HandbookProsecution2009INECEhttp://inece.org/resource/principles/Enforcement (chapter 8)Designed as a field reference guide for environmental compliance practitioners, the second edition (2009) of the Principles of Environmental Compliance and Enforcement Handbook is a unique compendium of tools, strategies, best practices, and case examples on designing, implementing, and evaluating effective environmental compliance and enforcement programs.
Waste and TFSkey areas involved: waste shipments, WEEE and e-waste, landfillsProject/InitiativeInspection ProsecutionIMPEL TFShttp://www.impel.eu/topics/waste-and-tfs/All wasteawareness raising and capacity building activities, facilitating inter-agency and cross-border collaboration and operational enforcement activities. Members of the cluster represent environmental authorities, but also customs and police services and other authorities that play a role in the enforcement of the transfrontier waste shipments.The scope of the Waste and TFS Expert Team is on the practical implementation and enforcement of international and European Waste Shipment Rules. The aim of the network is to promote compliance with the European Waste Shipment Regulation through enforcement, to carry out joint enforcement projects, to promote exchange of knowledge, best practices and experience with the enforcement of the Regulation and to stimulate a uniform enforcement regime.
INECE Seaport projectillegal transboundary moveoments of wasteProject/InitiativeINECEhttp://inece.org/topics/seaports/All waste - main streams encountered during investigations: e-waste wrongly declared as second hand goods, waste batteries wrongly described as plastic or mixed metal scrap, and
cathode ray tubes from television and computer monitors wrongly classified as metal scrap.
offers online tools, organization of workshops. Inspections exercises…The INECE Seaport Environmental Security Network is an operational network of professionals involved in the inspection and monitoring of transboundary movements of hazardous waste through seaports.
Barcelona Conventionillegal dumping, pollution, hazardous waste etc.Legislationprevention1976UNEP MAPhttp://www.unepmap.org/index.php?module=content2&catid=001001004hazardous wasteIn 1976 the Parties adopted the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea Against Pollution (Barcelona Convention). Seven Protocols addressing specific aspects of Mediterranean environmental conservation complete the MAP legal framework:
- Dumping Protocol (from ships and aircraft)
- Prevention and Emergency Protocol (pollution from ships and emergency situations)
- Land-based Sources and Activities Protocol
- Specially Protected Areas and Biological Diversity Protocol
- Offshore Protocol (pollution from exploration and exploitation)
- Hazardous Wastes Protocol
- Protocol on Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)
OC-Scanillegal waste disposalPolicy briefInspection2011EUROPOLhttps://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/publications/oc-scan_06_2011_illegal_waste_trafficking_and_disposal_0.pdfgravel-/sand-pits, abandoned industrial facilities, open-cast mines etc.exchange of best practices between national actors; multi-agency approachThe policy brief focuses on the use of improvised illegal waste disposal sites by criminals and OC groups in the EU
Sub-regional Training on Transboundary Shipment of Waste and Port Inspectionillegal waste shipment;TrainingInspection Detection2016Themis Networkhttp://www.themisnetwork.eu/news/106/23/Sub-regional-Training-on-Transboundary-Shipment-of-Waste-and-Port-Inspection.html#ae-image-0All wasteExperience and best practices exchanged between participants and EU Member States
(The Netherlands and Belgium); Improved understanding of waste-related legislation and waste classification; Better mutual knowledge between inspection practitioners; Exchange of expertise on port inspections and containers checking
The second sub-regional training took place in Bar, Montenegro, on April 12 and 13, 2016, and covered port inspections and waste management, with an emphasis on transboundary shipments of waste. The objective was to train relevant authorities from Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro, as well as observers from Moldova, on sea and inland port inspections using the experience of the INECE Seaport Initiative, and to involve them in an enforcement action related to waste shipment. The participating countries nominated delegates from environmental inspectorates with waste portfolios, as well as permit writers and customs officers.
Twinning Project IPA 2009 Programme for CroatiaIllegal shipments of wasteProject/Initiative2009Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection - Croatiahttp://www.projekttfs.hr/ms/transport_waste/welcome_en/tfs_objectives/tfs_team/Procedures for coordinated enforcement of the regulations related to transboundary movement of waste between inspectors and other relevant stakeholder’s staff established; Training needs analysis (TNA) conducted and training programme designed for all target groups; Waste Catalogue and information toolkit produced; developed Manual for coordinated enforcement of Regulation 1013/2006The Republic of Croatia, as a future member (when developed in 2009)of the EU must take the necessary measures to ensure efficient implementation and enforcement of the EU environmental Acquis. Croatian and international experts from Austria, Germany, Slovenia, Poland and Greece will work together towards an efficient implementation of Regulation (EC) No 1013/2006 on shipments of waste.
Twinning Project ENEA - Enforcing Environmental Acquis, MacedoniaProject/InitiativeInspection2015State Inspectorate for Environment - Macedoniahttp://www.sei.gov.mk/projects_page_en.asp?ID=2This project belongs to the Twinning Programme of the European Commission - Twinning provides the framework for public administrations and semi-public organisations in the beneficiary countries to work with their counterparts in EU Member States. The main feature of a Twinning project is to deliver specific and guaranteed results. Components of the project: 1. Strengthened administrative capacities for enforcement of environmental legislation; 2. Improved effectiveness of the environmental enforcement system; 3. Improved management information and reporting system (MIRS) for inspection
Twinning Project IPA 2013 Programme for Serbiahazardous waste management infringmentsProject/Initiativeprevention2013Ministry of Agriculture and Environmental Protection - Serbiahttp://hazardouswaste-serbia.info/ms/hazardouswaste-serbia/hw_en/hw_en/All wasteThe objective of this project is to contribute to the development and improvement of the hazardous waste management system in the Republic of Serbia, by improving both legislation and strategic planning and the implementation framework for managing special hazardous waste streams in compliance with EU standards and Serbian legislation.
EQual: Ensuring quality of waste-derived products to achieve resource efficiencyProject/Initiative2011-2015EU LIFE / UK EAhttps://www.gov.uk/government/groups/equal-ensuring-quality-of-waste-derived-products-to-achieve-resource-efficiencyAll wasteEQual has given businesses the tools and techniques to help them decide if their recycled waste meets the regulatory standards when made into new products. It’s also provided technical guidance to regulatory specialists to help them regulate waste sites.EQual was a partnership programme part-funded by the EU’s LIFE+ environment programme. It provided online tools for waste producers, waste management companies and recycled materials users and regulators, to help them determine if their new products meet regulatory standards.
Organized Crime and the Legal Economy - the Italian case studyEnvironmental crimeReportN/A2016UNICRIhttp://www.unicri.it/news/article/2016-04-27_Organized_Crime_and_theN/AThe report analyzed the reinvestment of illicit profits of organized crime groups into the legal economy in Italy. Environmental crimes are among the main sources of illicit profits of OC in Italy to be laundered and revinsted into licit (or apparently licit) economic activities
Fight against brand counterfeiting. Training CurriculumTraining Manual2011UNICRI Transcrime - GACChttp://www.unicri.it/topics/counterfeiting/fakes/FAKES_CZECHREP_-_ToC.pdfThis training manual presents a detailed training curriculum to be developed in a 4 days training on the issue of counterfeiting and organized crime. Even though the main focus is not waste crime, some exercises proposed in the curriculum as well as the specific parts on investigations can be taken into account for the development of DOTCOM Waste training toolkit
ENVIRONETEnvironmental crimeOnline tool2009WCOhttp://www.wcoomd.org/en/media/newsroom/2009/june/environet-fight-against-environmental-crime.aspx

http://www.wcoomd.org/en/topics/enforcement-and-compliance/instruments-and-tools/cen-suite/cencomm.aspx
AllInfo sharing
Cooperation
ENVIRONET is a real-time communication tool for information exchange and cooperation in the area of environmental issues among Customs administrations, competent national agencies, international organizations and their regional networks.
As one of the CENcomm (Customs Enforcement Network Communication) applications, ENVIRONET is internet based and accessible only to the closed user group (CUG).
Illegal shipment of e-waste from the EU. A case study on illegal e-waste export from the EU to ChinaIllegal shipmentEU-ChinaCase studyInspection
Detection
Investigation
Prosecution
2015EFFACEhttp://efface.eu/sites/default/files/EFFACE_Illegal%20shipment%20of%20e%20waste%20from%20the%20EU.pdfWEEELegilsation is coherent
International police cooperation
Increased controls at the external borders of the EU.
EU integrated approach toward enforcement
Contact points of prosecutors
Database of case law on environmental crime (IMPEL)
Confiscation measures
Intelligence-led enforcement
This report examines the case of illegal shipments of e-waste from the EU to China and the effectiveness of EU legislation to counter these shipments. Although the import of e-waste into China has been officially banned since 2000, it is estimated that around 8 million tonnes of e-waste are imported illegally into China every year. Despite empirical data suffering from high uncertainties, the scale of the e-waste trade, its environmental and health impacts, and its links to crime are difficult to contest.
Directory of Environmetal Law Enforcement NetworksProject/Initative2015INTERPOLhttps://www.interpol.int/Media/Files/Crime-areas/Environmental-crime/Directory-of-Environmental-Law-Enforcement-Networks/Cooperation
Networking
Information guide on the global and regional environmental law enforcement networks to enable communication and enhance cooperation between the networks themselves and the INTERPOL Environmental Security Sub-Directorate
Manual on prosecuting environmental crime in the Baltic sea regionEnvironmental crimeManualProsecution2016 (last edit)ENPROhttp://www.cbss.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/ENPRO-Manual-2013.pdfLegislation
Judicial system
Inter-agency collaboration
This manual serve as a handbook for prosecutors and other authorities who work at environmental crime and need information about the judicial systems and legislation of the other member states of the Council of the Baltic Sea States
Barriers to Joint Working: Issues affecting joint working in tackling waste crime (B12)Waste crimeScientific documentation2016LIFE Smart Waste projecthttps://www.sepa.org.uk/regulations/waste/life-smart-waste/publications/This report identifies a number of common barriers to effective joint working. The findings of this report categories these issues into various themes: People - which explores knowledge, behaviour and skills; Structures – which considers issues with group
structures; Processes; Resources – which identifies a number of issues including money, time, staff and information; and finally External Influences – which explores issues with cultural differences, political and organisational priorities.
Overcoming Barriers to Joint Working: Group Structures Required (B13)Waste crimeScientific documentation2016LIFE Smart Waste projecthttps://www.sepa.org.uk/regulations/waste/life-smart-waste/publications/Cooperation (Joint working)This report provides an analysis which identifies and evaluates key factors needed to implement effective and lasting partnerships.
IMPEL TFS Enforcement Actions Project report 2014 - 2015 Enforcement of the European Waste Shipment RegulationIllegal waste shjpmentEU-EU
EU-non EU
Scientific documentationInspection
Detection
2016IMPELhttp://www.impel.eu/projects/enforcement-actions/AllCollaboration: Communication (info sharing)
Joint inspections
Exchange programme
Best practices meeting
Intelligence (Risk assessment)
Clarity of data reporting
This report contains the results, conclusions and recommendations of the IMPEL Enforcement Actions project, covering the inspection period March 2014 to December 2015.
Manual Export/transboundary shipment of “used goods”Illegal management
Illegal trade
ManualDetectionAustrian Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Managementhttp://www.abfallwirtschaft.steiermark.at/cms/dokumente/11962415_45536/73f5860d/Handbuch_Leitfaden_Abfall_versus_Gebrauchtware_de-eng_2013-08-08_Medium_Quality_end.pdf.Compressor, IT equipment, mobile phone, motor vehicle spare parts, tires, vehicles, textilesDistinction waste / used goodThis manual provides information on the distinction between waste and non-waste and offers guidance on how to comply with the relevant environmental legislation.
Judicial handbook
on Environmental Law
Environmental crimes
Chapter 16 Toxic and hazardous substance and waste
ManualSentencing2005UNEPhttp://www.unep.org/delc/Portals/119/publications/Judicial-Handbook-Environmenal-Law.pdfThis handbook is intended to enable national judges in all types of tribunals in both civil law and common law jurisdictions to identify environmental issues coming before them and to be aware of the range of options available to them in interpreting and applying the law. It seeks to provide judges with a practical guide to basic environmental issues that are likely to arise in litigation. It includes information on international and comparative environmental law and references to relevant cases.
Science for Environment Policy THEMATIC ISSUE 56: Environmental compliance
assurance and combatting
environmental crime
Environmental crimesScientific documentationProsecution
Sentencing
2016Science for Environment Policyhttp://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/environmental_compliance_combatting_environmental_crime_56si_en.pdfNetworking
Intelligence-led policing
Sanctions
Satellite images
Several articles about networking, and prosecuting and sentencing environmental crimes
Council Conclusions on countering environmental crimeEnvironmental crimesPolicy briefInvestigation2016Council of the European Unionhttp://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-15412-2016-INIT/en/pdf.Networking
Cooperation
Specialised unit
Forensic
Intelligence
Public-private partnership
Conclusion and recommendations from the Council of the European Union to the main networks working on countering environmental crime
Shipments of green-listed waste
a Nordic survey
Annex VIIScientific documentationInspection2016Nordic Council of Ministershttp://norden.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A1065932&dswid=6650green-listed wasteThis project was carried out to provide a better picture of transboundary shipments of green-listed waste involving project countries Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. The project reviewed several Annex VII inspection and related contracts sent by several companies in the region. The project aslo included asking company representatives about their practices and opinions related to green-listed waste shipments.
Judicial Training Modules on Environmental LawEnvironmental crimesTraining ManualProsecution
Sentencing
2014UNEPhttp://www.unep.org/delc/JudicialTrainingModulesEnvironmentalLaw/tabid/102283/Default.aspxEvidence gathering
Presenting evidence in Court
Cases
Sanctions
This programme aims to better equip legal practitioners, judges and jurists in their roles interpreting and applying environmental laws.